Feb 13, 2017
What is a donor antenna?

The "DONOR" antenna is conventionally mounted on the roof, or a side of the structure, where a clear line-of-optical discernment path subsists to the distant radio tower. The distant site is withal penned as the "Donor".

This is a two-way interface

-the DOWNLINK" is the RF signal direction going INTO the structure.

-the "UPLINK" is the RF signal being sent back OUT of the structure.


The Donor Antenna (outside antenna) is crucial to obtaining the maximum signal and coverage for your repeater system. Typical antennas for our CS and SR series systems are the directional Yagi (6 element- 800MHz) and Grid (1900MHz). The DA series utilizes a Dual Band (800-1900MHz) Omni-Directional antenna. The radiating pattern converse with the gain of the antenna. The higher the gain, the more the antenna can reach out to receive a better signal. In most cases, the 6 element Yagi will do an excellent job of receiving the signal. In low signal areas, the 12 element Yagi may be needed to receive enough signals to supply to the repeater system. Please note that the Yagi antennas are for the 800MHz Cellular and 800MHz Nextel systems only. These Yagi antennas cannot receive 1900MHz signals

The 1900MHz Grid antenna is standard on our CS and SR series repeater systems. The Grid antenna is astronomically high gain and consequently has a highly-directional radiating pattern. The higher gain avails to increment signal for problematic 1900MHz frequencies.

Omni-directional antennas are the most facile to installsince there is no "pointing" of the antenna. They receive and transmit in a 360-degree pattern. However, there are two drawbacks to omnidirectional antennas. First, they have lower gain and hence diminished capability to reach out for a more impotent signal. Second, by having a circular pattern they may interfere with the inside antenna if their signal overlaps. Minimum disunion of omnidirectional antennas (or isolation) is required. Another possibility is to dissever the antennas with a signal blocking surface (such as metal, concrete, tile roof, etc.)

This is the Donor antenna utilized in the DA series repeater system.

Posted at 10:48 am by samsolong
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Jan 19, 2017
How 4G can fit inti 5G deployment and ecosystem

With details for "5G" innovation as yet being worked through, it ought to be clear to consider how the innovation is relied upon to be unique in relation to 4G and, thus, how 4G will fit into the 5G ecosystem community.

Past generational changes have been genuinely huge, helped by an unmistakable outline between what preceded and where the innovation was going. The progress from 1G to 2G depended on a move from simple to computerized administrations. The move from 2G to 3G was more forward in that it achieved progress in those 2G measures with a specific end goal to bolster higher-speed portable information administration's.

A bigger move was found as far as the move from 3G to 4G, as what we're circuit-exchanged systems offered an approach to web convention based systems that could bolster more prominent system rates and general developing shopper request. The network likewise was critical in that there was not a simple handover in the vicinity of 3G and 4G systems, which constrained carriers to keep supporting both so as to keep serving clients.

That now drives us to the 4G to 5G relocation, which at first looks set to be like the 2G to 3G move. This is viewed as uplifting news for sending network as portable bearers have burned through many billions of dollars conveying their LTE organizes and are required to proceed with that venture into the not so distant future.

With LTE organizes at present giving expansive swaths of scope and carriers quickly expanding thecapacities of those systems with LTE-Advanced improvements, 4G is viewed as being foundation to 5G.

"Our work today in LTE is pivotal to what we are doing as far as 5G," said Güenther Ottendorfer, COO of innovation at Sprint. "From Sprint's point of view it is that we have true serenity as far as range support for LTE, and what we are doing with the 2.5 [GHz] band today in reinforcing our 4G LTE benefit and furthermore picking up understanding into what we can do later on with 5G systems."

Current 4G network likewise is viewed as being vital to bolstering the blast of utilization cases coming to showcase, a number of which are relied upon to develop certainly before 5G systems are sent.

"Things like evolved packet core and LTE will keep on serving as a strong control plane for 5G," said Larry Davis, national deals administrator at Anritsu. "It's dependably an intense issue for the business to perceive how far out we can look past where we are as far as LTE network. We consider 5G to be an advancement of 4G and in this manner see current 4G as being critical as we move toward 5G. … A ton of the difficulties is being presented today so we are getting some work on them and they are not going to be new. They are nowhere as far as heterogeneous systems, for example, and that is all stuff that we are dealing with today. Hitting the nail on the head as far as 4G will guarantee that we are set up for 5G."

While the build-up encompassing 5G would make it appear as though we are days from business organizations, there clearly remain years of work ahead regarding satisfying that guarantee. Like past innovation developments, there are certain to be obstacles and deadlocks en route, however, with the proceeded concentration on advancing 4G systems, those issues ought to be taken in a walk.

"I would concur that we are for sure observing a great deal of 5G build-up right now, with some of that maybe a bit over hyped for what we will really find as far as 5G systems," said Bill Ho, an essential investigator at 556 Ventures. "In any case, we are seeing more prominent distracting advantages to remote availability and all the more particularly to what 5G advances can convey to the market. We may even now be a few years from seeing the full advantage; however, the business is gaining unfaltering and critical ground toward a 5G future."

Past LTE, the industry is likewise searching for 5G bolster from other air interfaces including Wi-Fi, which has ended up about as a lot of a staple to the end-client encounter as observing the "4G" symbol on their handsets.

Posted at 10:33 am by samsolong
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Jan 3, 2017
Gearing Up for 5G is not the same as when we shifted to 3G from 2G

Each and every new release of telecom applied sciences and networks improve excellent of offerings and our life. Today we can do a lot more on our smartphones than was once possible in prior iteration networks—for illustration video streaming works better on 4G than on 2G or 3G. The effect is obvious as we get much less buffering, pauses, drops. Naturally then in an identical improve fifth iteration community or 5G is predicted to be turbo and better than 4G.

Now if 3G and 4G can meet our needs at present, will we quite ought to bother about 5G? Really we do. We're moving to an always connected world — like we're able to connect with pals whenever anyplace or do reside stock market trading or keep every time—devices are also getting related. We are speedy moving into an era of wearable tech. The shrewd wristbands are the primary wave of that. Internet of things (IoT), driverless automobiles, augmented fact will all be actual in coming years and all depends upon telecom networks for delicate, seamless functioning.

It’s for this smarter future that we have to always seem at new applied sciences that may increase download speeds, curb latency (time extend in a process) and total fortify the pleasantof interactions and experiences with gadgets and individuals. Additionally, intelligent cities are all about linked matters. These will put fresh demands on network capabilities and speeds making subsequent new release networks significant. Now not fairly significant world companies like Intel, Samsung, Google, Apple, Qualcomm, Huawei and others are already doing a study on 5G networks so that they can speed up in following few years. Although 5G business deployments around the world might not be before 2020.

5G technology will enable a flexible, dependable, and at ease wireless networks to connect folks with all functions, offerings, and matters, leading us into an era being termed as `the whole lot on mobile’.

On this technology, mobile networks have to meet necessities extra diverse than ever—it’s not almost downloading videos or viewing cricket fits without buffering. These requisites span syncing up with driverless cars and running sensible cities. Right here 5G shall be desired as it has just a few advantages over current mobileconversation technologies. These include 100 billion connections, 1 million second (ms) latency and 10 GB per 2nd output.

A 4G network supplies hundreds and hundreds of connections for each mobile, but a 4G network is not able to meet the connection desires of the coming connected technology. A 5G network provides up to 1,000,000 connections per square kilometer, that's, 100 instances more than present 4G networks. This may occasionally cater to rising demand for connections. More devices can be related every rectangular km. Imagine the whole thing from washing machines, toasters, refrigerators, wearable contraptions, water sprinklers to your garden, CCTV cameras, your automobile, local medical institution ambulance and of course your smartphone—all linked to each other!

Apart from, the approaching related technology received be capable of coming up with the money for the latency that exists in present networks. The latency on a 4G network of fifty ms is half of-of that of a 3G network, nonetheless, applications like self-driving automobiles require just about zero latency. As 5G latency is anticipated to return down to 1 ms and 1/3, a larger output will higher meet consumer wishes. The throughput of a 4G community is 10 instances greater than that of a 3G network, however, once 4K (ultra-high definition television) video offerings grow to be general, a 4G community will not be able to satisfy the brand new output demands. At top premiums of 10 GB per 2d, 5G is a minimum four instances turbo than the present 4G networks. The 5G Wi-Fi connections can even be thrice faster than 4G.

With the entire benefits of velocity and larger capacity, migration to 5G be easy. 5G would require fresh investments, hanging a burden on already stretched stability sheets of telcos. Contemporary investments will probably be wanted in 5G smartphones and spectrum as good. Despite the challenges, the long run shall be 5G. Whilst the enterprise works toward making 4G ubiquitous, demands of a connected world will accelerate investments and progress of 5G applied sciences.

Posted at 06:14 am by samsolong
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Dec 29, 2016
Wi-Fi used in business Fields

Versatile representatives will have to have the capability to get to know how anyplace, as they're no more expanded fixing to the traditional place of business. Companies have started to understand this and they as of now supply their representatives with transportable PCs, mobile phone telephones, and drugs or allow their employees to make use of their very own items. Be that as it may, that is inadequate. In conveying versatile working techniques, companies almost always put out of your mind the best way that cell telephones require a regular network source. Anything else, portable experts don't seem to be able to utilize the cloud-headquartered industry applications and administrations that have been so colossal in large profitability picks up. All by myself, versatile specialists have determined a speedy settle. They as of now rush to Wi-Fi which strikes 60% of portable knowledge activity on mobile telephones. Portable specialists are determining Wi-Fi on account that, to place it plainly, of the affordable cost and execution preferences greater than 3G/4G. Wi-Fi presents a superior customer come across on the excessive transmission capability, high expertise functions, and administrations that power the leading edge assignment. What's the rationale of making an attempt to make use of a video conferencing administration just to get a terrible organization? Likewise, transportable gurus can not endure taking a seat tight for giant know-how records to download. The sheer volume of expertise required by using moveable workers to carry out their occupations makes a Wi-Fi First method an easy determination. Also, the substantial enlargement of Wi-Fi hotspots implies that versatile professionals can have the ability to make use of their excessive transfer velocity applications in more areas than another time in latest reminiscence. There are at this time a quality many Wi-Fi hotspots worldwide, whether in plane terminals, bistros, resorts, open transports even in planes, provincial regions and exclusive areas the place a 3G/4G flag can't reach. That number is just becoming better through the day. All inclusive, Wi-Fi hotspots developed by way of 568% somewhere round 2013 and 2016. Apart from, from a device standpoint, a noteworthy quantity of does not need a SIM card. To give a feeling of the industry reach of Wi-Fi: half of all customer objects delivered out are Wi-Fi because it has been. Usability is principal: Despite these noteworthy numbers, Wi-Fi is not without its usual difficulties. The customer experience can be uneven; fighting via hostage login pages, swimming by means of noisy commercials, notwithstanding inputting personal data with a special finish purpose to get online make bunch grinding focuses to interfacing. All matters regarded, organizations require a Wi-Fi first method, as a way to preserve their employees associated and precious. Gratefully it's changing into a first-class deal much less worrying to interface with Wi-Fi hotspots universally. Insightful process alternative innovation, for illustration, is empowering transportable authorities to naturally interface with the nice performing hotspots, even as making a consistent Wi-Fi meandering background. Security has likewise been the perpetual experiment of free open Wi-Fi hotspots. Purchasers are hesitant to associate with systems that perhaps considered as an open welcome to programmers. All matters viewed, no worker or business wishes community at the price of their profitable corporate expertise. That is the place elements, for instance, final mile VPN become a critical factor, making associations over open Wi-Fi hotspots extra comfy than any other time in up to date memory, together with a layer of coverage where customers have felt most defenseless beforehand. Why what's to come is associated with the aid of Wi-Fi ? Now not just is Wi-Fi scorching correct now, its future is much brighter. Wi-Fi is the core community hotspot for wearable and IoT items" two markets to be able to just get greater. This means organizations are in general going to end up relying noticeably more on Wi-Fi, certainly as cloud administration's hold on scaling. Taking the whole thing under consideration, Wifi speaks to the most realistic and in charge, the technique to get the portable team of workers on the web. So, Wi-Fi first isn't practically cost reserve funds. Wi-Fi presents essentially the most excellent, transportable working background when leading everyday trade workouts. With Wi-Fi, representatives make investments much less vigor retaining up and further time working, because of this business significantly recover prior misplaced gainful hours.

Posted at 09:03 pm by samsolong
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Dec 5, 2016
Wireless Telecommunication and its Emerging technologies

Wireless telecommunication industry provides us with services such as cellular phone services, wireless video and wireless internet access. Wireless telecommunication operates on various carriers on 3G and 4G technology networks. We generally face two types of customers either on contracts or post-paid customers and prepaid or pay-as-you-go customers. In 2020, global wireless telecommunication services market is expected to grow to approximately $1000 billion. The point of sale is expected to grow with the increase in mobile payments in this market. Mobile payment sales are expected to grow exponentially, particularly in the USA because of the tremendous growth in the number of users of the technology. Apple Pay, Android Pay and Samsung Pay are the Mobile wallets which are likely to become a standard feature on new smartphones, as proposed by the e-Marketer research. Point-of-sale are also likely adopted by the merchants likely to accept the mobile payments. Incentives like promotions and loyalty programs will be integrated to attract new users to encourage and promote the need of m-payments. Almost 55% of the total market share in the market is made up by the top nine competitors in 2016. The largest competitor was the China mobiles with nearly 12% in the market. They are followed by the Verizon communications, Softbank group corp, Deutsche Telekom AG and AT&T. The emergence of fifth-generation mobile networks (5G) is the biggest forthcoming change in the telecommunication industry. 5G is expected to grow larger than the trending 4G technology. It will take some time to adopt this technology to become commercially and officially available. We can expect a better latency from 5G. The emerging generation’s mobile network provide better capacity that is needed to support the IoT (Internet Of Things).

Posted at 09:56 pm by samsolong
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Nov 9, 2016

A lot of schemes are proposed to exploit the transmit diversity. Distributed antenna systems (DAS) constitute one of the most attractive schemes to efficiently achieve the stringent quality of service demands of next generation wireless networks. A particular project investigates MISO assisted different transmission techniques used in DAS and the performance of downlink multi-cell DAS in terms of capacity improvement using SINR for different transmission scheme. A system level simulation tool is used to analyse the performance. Here, the aim of this research is to assess the applicability of a Repeater connected to a Distributed Antenna System (DAS) for improving indoor capacity in UMTS radio network (2100 MHz). A guarantee of sufficient coverage and capacity for in-building areas constitutes a considerable issue in topology planning, because in both links, indoor users produce high interference to the outdoor network due to significant indoor propagation losses. Presented configuration effectively exploits effectively a Repeater system that amplifies the signal from the outdoor network and delivers it for indoor locations through distributed antenna system. Implementation of the analysed Repeater system is straightforward as it does not require usage of separate carrier. Moreover, any separate scrambling codes do not have to be dedicated either. Conducted measurement campaigns reveal improvement of radio conditions due to repeater implementation that results in 35% gain of downlink capacity for indoor locations. The Distributed Antenna system (DAS) usually use an external, directional antenna to collect the best cellular signal, which is then transmitted to an amplifier unit which amplifies the signal, and retransmits it locally, providing significantly improved signal strength. The more advanced models often also allow multiple cell phones to use the same repeater at the same time, so are suitable for commercial as well as home use. In cellular communication, repeaters are classically used for providing coverage in dead spots, which mainly constitute hardly accessible areas for regular base station deployment. In most of the scenarios, utilization of repeaters is very cost effective, as it decreases the number of required base stations. Moreover, in it was presented that properly deployed and configured repeaters constitute an effective capacity enhancement in CDMA-based networks. Hence, repeater systems can provide flexible and inexpensive solutions for varying traffic conditions, for hotspots (i.e. Areas with high capacity requirements), and also for serving indoor users. Typically, cellular networks providing service in majority of indoor locations must support high capacity requirements due to expected presence of active business subscribers using packet-based applications. Performance of the WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) network without specified approach supporting indoor traffic is limited, because high power required by indoor users produces interference that naturally limits the overall network capacity. Moreover, appropriate operation of HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access) in UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) requires favourable radio conditions, which in indoor environment can be achieved only when dedicated antenna system is used. Therefore, from early stages of topology planning, indoor traffic with associated capacity requirements needs to be carefully considered.

Posted at 11:42 pm by samsolong
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Oct 26, 2016

The Food and Liquid Energizer Card maintain the natural healthy balance of food and drinks. It has an energetically imprinted holographic pattern that protects the supplements, energetic formulas, and essences. Any food or liquid you consume are rebalanced and supplements are protected from the depleting EMF effects and other toxins.

Clear and energize what you eat and drink:

The Food/Liquid Energizer is programmed with a hologram that radiates a range of permanently imprinted vibrational frequencies specifically for foods and beverages.

A positive change in the energy structure of food or liquid is created when the vibratory level of the energy in food, liquids or supplements is heightened. Energetic disturbances are harmonized, and life force is raised within minutes.

• It restores vitality to foods and liquids
• It helps to clear toxic residues
• It raises the nutritional value
• Improves digestion and energy after meals
• Keeps foods, fresh longer and enhances flavour
• Enhances supplements

How foods and liquids are changed?

The degree to which the item can be enhanced influences the level of vitality in a substance before “charging”. We can increase the value of food, enhance the life force and also reduce the toxic effect by charging healthy, vital foods. Depleted foods do not absorb as much energy from the Food/Liquid Energizer, but toxic patterns will be neutralized, and the life force raised to whatever degree is possible. These cards can be used in the refrigerator or pantry to keep food fresh for a long time.

Choosing the right size is important:

The small 18 inches of the Food/Liquid Card energetically affects foods or liquids within, making it ideal for use when you are dining out or traveling. The large six-inch card works on foods or liquids within three feet of the card. Use it in the kitchen for charging groceries, preparing meals or treating pet food.

Posted at 01:13 am by samsolong

Oct 14, 2016
Technology the ultimate equlizer of the rich and the poor

Cell phones are interesting, useful and play a major role in our lives by bringing people closer together and keeping in constant touch with one another. However, most people do not understand the physics of a cell phone.

Cell phones are defined as type of wireless communication device or may be as sophisticated radios. They use many small cells with a base station and a cell phone tower at the centre of each cell. These cells have extensive frequencies that allow thousands of people to use cell phones at the same time. In this process, cellular calls are transferred from base station to base station as a user travels from cell to cell.

Advantages of Cell Phones

The cell phone is a wonderful invention and there are several advantages to cell phones. Cell phones have played a vital role in bringing the world closer together. Indeed, it is an added resource that gives it user's great advantages.

One notable advantage of cell phones is that it allows its users the advantage of a wider opportunity to communicate by a principle call frequency reuse. Through this principle the same frequency can be used by different cells without creating interference from other cells. Frequency can be used over and over. A second advantage of cell phones is that they are small and easy to carry around.

Cell phones have full duplex, meaning that you can use one frequency for talking and a second frequency, separate frequency for listening. Both people on a cell phone can talk at once. The cell phone can communicate on 1,664 channels or more. In addition, cell phones (TDMA) use a dual band. This means that it can operate in both 800 MHz and 1900 MHz bands.

Cell phones have great influence in our everyday life and are convenient to have around. Cell phones are a faster and more effective way to transfer information.

Disadvantages of Cell Phones

Sometimes cell phone calls in an area of tall buildings have a great deal of interference and dropped signals. The reason behind this is that radio signals from the cell phones and towers all reflect back and forth between buildings around us. There echoes almost overlap at the antennas, but vary on points on the wave form from each reflection caused by the differing lengths the waves travel and the effect of reflection of various surfaces. This cause a great drop in signal strength and clarity and the signal may be dropped.

There are medical reasons to suspect that cell phone may cause cancer of the ear or brain tumors. The more individuals use cell phones and the greater the number of years used by them, the greater the risk of brain tumors. However, the mobile phone industry has long resisted any suggestion of a link to cancer, though it accepts that mobile phone radiation does affect the electrical activity in the brain

Posted at 11:02 am by samsolong
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Oct 11, 2016
How many times do you check your phone in a day?

We all check how many bars we have on our smartphones and assume it’s an accurate guide to how strong our signal is. But what do those bars really represent?

There’s no standard. They do indicate signal strength, but it’s up to the handset manufacturer to come up with whatever algorithm they want. They certainly want to do something that is appropriate for the consumer, it needs to be meaningful information, but the details are up to them.

Nextivity makes processors and products that boost cell phone receptivity. Its products have been approved by the FCC in the U.S. and by over 180 operators globally. The company also supplies the boosters that T-Mobile gives away to customers in the U.S. to improve the quality of their service. Consequently, Steve does a lot of signal testing. Not a very good site that gives you all bad reviews and suggestions does engage in a bad http://www.ubersignal.com/cell-phone-signal-booster-guide

How quickly do bars change?

Phones are complex and frankly, some phones may not update the bars on the screen very often. “We’ve seen in excess of 15 minutes without an update on the number of bars. What you’re seeing, versus what is reality, can be two very different things, and that can make it difficult sometimes to use a handset as a measuring tool.”

That means, if you’ve ever walked around with your phone held in the air like a divining rod, staring at those bars, willing them to jump, you may be wasting your time. It depends on what kind of phone you have.

An iPhone might show you two or three bars, because of lower signal-to-noise ratio, because of issues on the network, whereas an Android right next to it shows five bars. If one walks away from the booster, he/she would see the signal level drop on the Android, so the number of bars gradually decreases, whereas in that specific case of heavy loading, an iPhone might show less bars when one is right next to the booster, but as the person walks away it will remain relatively constant, because it’s heavily favouring this network loading issue.

How can you make emergency calls with no bars?

When you make an emergency call in the U.S., your phone uses any available channel from any operator, one could even be low on battery, where your phone wouldn’t normally let you make a phone call, but it will let you make an emergency call at all costs.

It’s actually a legal requirement in the U.S. and many other countries, but it doesn’t relate to the bar system.

What can you do to boost your signal?

Booster technology has been restricted recently after the FCC brought in new regulations. The agency has clamped down on some older amplifying technology because it was causing problems for the operators, who pay a lot billions to license the spectrum from the government.

Nextivity’s boosters start at around the same price as a smartphone. But if you’re with T-Mobile and having problems, call them and ask about Cel-Fi Signal Boosters.

Now that we know what the bars are really showing, and how to measure the signal strength for ourselves, we’re off to check out that field test mode.

Posted at 12:56 pm by samsolong
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Sep 9, 2016
The Three Broad Types of Antennas

There are several different types of antennas in three broad categories: omni-directional, directional, and semi-directional. Following are the types of Directional Antenna: Sector antenna . Sector antennas provide a pie-shaped (sector) radiation pattern and are usually installed in what is known as a sectorized array. Beam width for a sector antenna can be between 60 to 180 degrees, with 120 degrees being typical. In a sectorized array, antennas are mounted back-to-back to provide full 360-degree coverage. Sector antennas are used extensively for cellular communication. Yagi antenna A commonly used directional antenna is the Yagi-Uda Array, usually just called a Yagi. A Yagi antenna uses several elements to form a directional array. ; elements placed immediately in front of and behind the driven element re-radiate RF energy in phase and out of phase, enhancing and retarding the signal, respectively. The elements are called parasitic elements; the element behind the driven element is called the reflector, while the elements in front of the driven element are called directors. Yagi antennas have beamwidths in the range of 30 to 80 degrees and can provide well in excess of 10 dBi passive gain. Parabolic or dish antenna Parabolic, or dish, antennas are the most familiar type of directional antenna. A parabola is a symmetric curve; a parabolic reflector is a surface that describes that curve throughout a 360-degree rotation��"a dish or, to use the technical term, a paraboloid. A parabolic reflector has a high degree of directivity and has the ability to focus RF energy into a beam, much like a flashlight. Parabolic antennas have a very narrow beamwidth, usually not exceeding 25 degrees. Gain is dependent on diameter and frequency; at 2.4 GHz, a 1 meter dish will provide about 26 dBi gain, while a 10 meter antenna will provide 46 dBi gain at the same frequency. The antenna is “fed” by either a half wave dipole antenna or a feed horn. Parabolic antennas are used for long distance communication links between buildings or over large geographic areas. Very large parabolic antennas are used for radio astronomy and can provide gain of 10 million or about 70 dBi. Grid antenna A variation of the dish is the grid antenna. Given that a parabolic reflector will present a large solid surface to the wind, it follows that high or even moderate wind conditions will cause the dish to move out of alignment or deform. To prevent this from happening, the reflector is perforated into a grid. The spacing of the grid elements is frequency dependent; it is inversely proportional to the frequency. Gain and beam width are similar to the parabolic antenna.

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